ENAER (ECH-51) T-35 PILLAN

English name: Devil
Spanish Air Force designation: E.26 Tamiz (Grader)

TYPE: Basic prop trainer.

PROGRAMME: First two prototypes (first flight 6 March 1981) developed by Piper; followed by three Piper kits for ENAER assembly (first flight, by FACh s/n 101, 30 January 1982); then slight redesign, as recorded in earlier editions; ENAER series production started September 1984; first flight of production T-35A, 28 December 1984. Deliveries to FACh began 31 July 1985; original export deliveries completed 1991. Production resumed in November 1998 to build 12 (all now delivered) for Dominican Republic and again in 2002 to meet an Ecuadorean Navy order for four. Promotion continued at FIDAE Air Show in April 2002.

CURRENT VERSIONS: T-35A: Primary trainer version for Chilean Air Force. In service with Escuela de Aviacion 'Capitan Avalos' at El Bosque AB, Santiago.
Detailed description applies to the above version except where indicated.
T-35B: Chilean Air Force and Dominican Republic instrument trainer, with more comprehensive instrumentation.
T-35C: Primary trainer for Spanish Air Force (designation E.26 Tamiz), assembled by CASA from ENAER kits.
T-35D: Instrument trainer for Panama and Paraguay.
T-35S: Single-seat prototype (CC-PZB).
T-35DT Turbo Pillan: Turboprop version. No orders announced by April 2002, when shown at FIDAE Air Show after mid-March maiden flight with new 'glass cockpit' (203 x 254 mm; 8 x 10 in ARNAV ICDS 2000 display) and offered with IAI Tamam POP or FLIR Systems 7500 infra-red sensor in turret under port wing as border surveillance aircraft. Still no reported orders by early 2003.
Pillan 2000: Version proposed in 1998, retaining the existing T-35 fuselage, tail unit and piston engine, combined with a lighter weight but increased span wing designed by the Russian companies Technoavia and Tyazhpromexport. No further news since that time.

CUSTOMERS: Total of 123 (excluding prototypes and trials aircraft) built for air forces of Chile (34 T-35A, 14 T-35B), Dominican Republic (eight T-35B), Panama (10 T-35D), Paraguay (13 T-35D) and Spain (40 T-35C/E.26), plus four delivered to Ecuadorean Navy, beginning on 2 April 2002. Further four on order for Dominican Republic. Surplus FACh aircraft also sold to El Salvador (five), Guatemala (five) and Panama (two). Pillan was short-listed (unsuccessfully) as potential replacement for Israel Defence Force Piper Super Cubs.

COSTS: US$1.3 million, T-35DT (2002).

DESIGN FEATURES: Low-risk, low-cost and international marketability achieved by reliance on Piper for development, some structural components and FAA compliance. Based on Piper Cherokee series (utilising many components of PA-28 Dakota and PA-32 Saratoga); cleared to FAR Pt 23 (Aerobatic category) and military standards for basic, intermediate and instrument flying training. Low-wing, tandem-seat design; sweptback vertical tail, non-swept horizontal surfaces.
Wing section NACA 652-415 on constant chord inboard panels. NACA 652-415 (modified) at tips; incidence 2o at root, -0o 30' at tip; dihedral 7o from roots.

FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Mass-balanced elevators and rudder; single-slotted wing flaps, aileron trim tab (port) and tailplane/elevator trim all electrically actuated; variable incidence tailplane.

STRUCTURE: Main structure of aluminium alloy and steel, with riveted skins, except for glass fibre engine cowling, wingtips and tailplane tips. Single-spar fail-safe wings, with components mainly from PA-28-236 Dakota (leading-edges) and PA-32R-301 Saratoga (trailing-edges), modified for shorter span; vertical tail virtually identical with Dakota; tailplane uses some standard components from Dakota and PA-31 (Navajo/Cheyenne); tailcone from Cherokee components, modified for narrower fuselage.

LANDING GEAR: Hydrualically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. Main units retract inward, steerable nosewheel rearward. Piper oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber in each unit. Emergency free-fall extension. Cleveland mainwheels and McCreary tyres size 6.00-6 (8 ply), nosewheel and tyre size 5.00-5 (6 ply), nosewheel and tyre size 5.00-5 (6 ply). Tyre pressures: 2.62 bar (38 lb/sq in) on mainwheels, 2.41 bar (35 lb/sq in) on nosewheel. Single-disc air-cooled hydraulic brake on each mainwheel. Parking brake. Minimum ground turning radius 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in).

POWER PLANT: One 224 kW (300 hp) Textron Lycoming IO-540-K1K5 flat-six engine, driving a Hartzell HC-C3YR-4BF/FC7663R three-blade constant-speed metal propeller. Fuel in two integral aluminium tanks in wing leading-edges, total capacity 291.5 litres (77.0 US gallons; 64.1 Imp gallons), of which 278 litres (73.4 US gallons; 61.1 Imp gallons) are usable. Overwing gravity refuelling point on each wing. Oil capacity 11.4 litres (3.0 US gallons; 2.5 Imp gallons). Fuel and oil systems permit up to 40 seconds of inverted flight.

ACCOMMODATION: Two verticaly adjustable seats, with seat belts and shoulder harnesses, in tandem beneath one-piece transparent jettisonable canopy which opens sideways to starboard. One-piece acrylic windscreen and one-piece window in glass fibre fairing aft of canopy. Rear (instructor's) seat 22 cm (8.7 in) higher. Dual controls standard. Baggage compartment aft of rear cockpit, with external access on port side. Cockpits ventilated; cockpit heating and canopy demisting by engine bleed air.

SYSTEMS: Electrically operated hydraulic system, at 124 bar (1,800 lb/sq in) pressure for landing gear retraction and 44.8 bar (650 lb/sq in) for gear extension; separate system at 20.7 bar (300 lb/sq in) for wheel brakes. Electrical system is 24 V DC, powered by 28 V 70 A engine-driven Prestolite alternator and 24 V 15.5 Ah lead-acid battery, with inverter for AC power at 400 Hz to operate RMIs and attitude indicators. External power socket. No oxygen or de-icing provisions.

AVIONICS: Standard basic avionics by Rockwell Collins; optional items by Bendix/King.
Comms: Two VHF-251 com transceivers, two AMR-350 audio selector panels, TDR-950 transponder and Isocom interphone standard; Bendix/King KX 165 nav/com/glideslope, KMA 24H audio control/MKR and KT 76A transponder optional.
Flight: VIR-351 VOR with IND-350A, ADF-650A with IND-650 indicator and TOR-950 IFF standard; options include Bendix/King KR 87 ADF with KA 44B indicator, KN 63 DME with KDI 572 or IND 450 indicator, KDI 573 DME remote indicator, KR 21 or KML 351 marker beacon receiver, KA 40 marker beacon remote, KI 525A HSI and KNI 582 RMI indicator.

 

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