HAL (SEPECAT) JAGUAR INTERNATIONAL

Indian Air Force name: Shamsher (Assault Sword)

TYPE: Attack fighter.

PROGRAMME: Forty (including five two-seat) Jaguar Internationals with Adour Mk 804 engines delivered from UK, beginning March 1981; 45 more with Adour Mk 811s and new DARIN nav/attack system assembled in India, making first flight (JS136) 31 March 1982; further 31 manufactured under licence in India (first delivery early 1988); deliveries of further 15, ordered 1993, were completed by March 1999 with delivery of last three of this batch. Indian government ordered additional batch of 17 two-seaters in March 1999. These will be equipped with upgraded DARIN II nav/attack system and employed in a night attack role with laser-guided weapons. Deliveries to Indian Air Force to be made between 2003 and 2005. Letter of intent for further 20 single-seaters has been received, which would extend Jaguar production until 2007; these will have upgraded DARIN II nav/attack system and new LRMTS.

CURRENT VERSIONS: Jaguar B: Two-seat trainer version; 15 delivered; further 15 on order with DARIN II nav/attack system, laser designator pod and modified fin.
Jaguar S: Standard single-seat attack version; 106 delivered; further 20 scheduled to follow.
Maritime Jaguar: Jaguars of IAF No.6 Squadron, assigned to anti-shipping role, have Agave radar, interfaced with DARIN nav/attack system and Sea Eagle anti-shipping missiles; first modified aircraft delivered January 1986; 12 ordered, of which all delivered by end of 1999. To be upgraded by substitution of Elta EL/M-2032 for Agave, with which flight trials were under way in 2002. In 2001, deliveries began of a further two Jaguar M.

CUSTOMERS: Indian Air Force received 132, comprising 117 single-seat (including 12 Maritime) and 15 two-seat combat-capable trainers. Further 15 Jaguar Bs and two Ms (ordered 1999) in production for delivery from 2003; additional 20 single-seaters expected to follow. Basic strike version equips Nos.5 ('Tuskers') and 14 ('Bulls') Squadrons at Ambala and Nos. 16 ('Cobras') and 27 ('Flaming Arrows') Squadrons at Gorakhpur; anti-shipping version equips No. 6 ('Dragons') Squadron at Pune.

DESIGN FEATURES: Purpose-designed attack aircraft. Shoulder-wing monoplane. Anhedral 3o. Sweepback 40o at quarter-chord. Outer leading-edges fitted with slat which also gives effect of extended chord. Tail unit sweepback at quarter-chord 40o on horizontal, 43o on vertical surfaces; tailplane anhedral 10o. Ventral fins beneath rear fuselage.

FLYING CONTROLS: Fairey Hydraulics powered flying controls. No ailerons: control by two-section spoilers, forward of outer flap on each wing, in association (at low speeds) with differential tailplane. Hydraulically operated (by screwjack) full-span double-slotted trailing-edge flaps. Leading-edge slats can be used in combat. All-moving slab-type tailplane, the two halves of which can operate differentially to supplement the spoilers.

STRUCTURE: Wing is an all-metal two-spar torsion box structure; skin machined from solid aluminium alloy, with integral stiffeners. Main portion built as single unit, with three-point attachment to each side of fuselage. Fuselage all-metal, mainly aluminium, built in three main units and making use of panels and, around the cockpit(s), honeycomb panels. Local use of titanium alloy in engine bay area. Two door-type airbrakes under rear fuselage, immediately aft of each mainwheel well. Structure and systems aft of cockpit(s), identical for single-seat and two-seat versions. The tail unit is a cantilever all-metal structure, covered with aluminium alloy sandwich panels. Rudder and outer panels and trailing-edge of tailplane have honeycomb core.

LANDING GEAR: Messier-Hispano-Bugatti retractable tricycle type, all units having Dunlop wheels and low-pressure tyres for rough field operation. Hydraulic retraction, with oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Forward-retracting main units each have twin wheels, tyre size 615x225-10, pressure 5.8 bar (84 lb/sq in). Wheels pivot during retraction to stow horizontally in bottom of fuselage. Single rearward-retracting nosewheel, with tyre size 550x250-6 and pressure 3.9 bar (57 lb/sq in). Twin landing/taxying lights in nosewheel door. Dunlop hydraulic brakes. Anti-skid units and arrester hook standard. Irvin brake parachute of 5.5 m (18 ft 0 in) diameter in fuselage tailcone.

POWER PLANT: Two HAL-built Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour Mk 811 turbofans (Phase 3 aircraft onwards), each rated at 25.0 kN (5,620 lb st) dry and 37.4 kN (8,400 lb st) with afterburning. Fixed-geometry air intake on each side of fuselage aft of cockpit. Fuel in six tanks, one in each wing and four in fuselage. Total internal fuel capacity 4,200 litres (1,110 US gallons; 924 Imp gallons). Armour protection for critical fuel system components. Provision for carrying three auxiliary drop tanks, each of 1,200 litres (317 US gallons; 264 Imp gallons) capacity, on fuselage and inboard wing pylons. Provision for in-flight refuelling, with retractable probe forward of cockpit on starboard side.

ACCOMMODATION: Jaguar S has enclosed cockpit for pilot, with rearward-hinged canopy and Martin-Baker Mk 9B zero/zero ejection seat. Jaguar B crew of two in tandem on Martin-Baker Mk 9B Srs II zero/zero ejection seats. Individual rearward-hinged canopies. Rear seat 38 cm (15 in) higher than front seat. Windscreen bulletproof against 7.5 mm rifle fire.

SYSTEMS: Air conditioning and pressurisation systems for cockpit(s) also control temperature in certain equipment bays. Two independent hydraulic systems, powered by two engine-driven pumps. Hydraulic pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in). First system (port engine) supplies one channel of each actuator for flying controls, hydraulic motors which actuate flaps and slats, landing gear retraction and extension, brakes and anti-skid units. Second system supplies other half of each flying control actuator, two further hydraulic motors actuating slats and flaps, airbrake and landing gear emergency extension jacks, nosewheel steering and wheel brakes. In addition, there is a hydraulic power transfer unit and an emergency electrohydraulic pump.
Electrical power provided by two 15 kVA AC generators, either of which can sustain functional and operational equipment without load shedding. DC power provided by two 4kW transformer-rectifiers. Emergency power for essential instruments provided by 40 Ah battery and static inverter. De-icing, rain clearance and demisting standard. Liquid oxygen system, which also pressurises pilot's anti-g trousers.
Jaguar is fully power-controlled in all three axes and is automatically stabilised as a weapons platform by gyros which sense disturbances and feed appropriate correcting data through a computer to the power control assemblies, in addition to human pilot manoeuvre demands. Power controls are all of duplex tandem arrangement, with mechanical and electrical servo-valves of Fairey platen design. Air-to-air combat capability can be enhanced by inclusion of roll/yaw dampers, to increase lateral stability, and by increasing slat and flap angels.

AVIONICS: HAL-manufactured DARIN (display attack and ranging inertial navigation) nav/attack system initially, incorporating INS, HUDWAC, COMED, interconnected MIL-STD-1553B dual-redundant databus and interfaced with LRMTS. The 15 new two-seats and (when ordered) additional 20 strike versions will be fitted with new RLG/INS with GPS, new HUD and smart MFDs (see below); HOTAS upgrade postponed.
Comms: Main (20-channel) V/UHF; standby UHF and HAL COM 326A HF transceivers (being replaced by Incom integrated com system); IFF-400 AM transponder (single-seaters only).
Radar: Thales Avionics Agave originally in Maritime version, interfaced with DARIN system; planned to be replaced by Elta EL/M-2032.
Flight: SAGEM ULISS 82 INS (to be replaced by RLG/INGPS); HAL ADF and radar altimeter.
Instrumentation: Smiths HUDWAC (head-up display and weapon aiming computer) (to be replaced by Elop HUD with Smiths/HAL co-developed mission computer); BAE Systems COMED 2045 (combined map and electronic display) to be replaced by Thales (Sextant) digital autopilot and 152 x 152 mm (6 x 6 in) smart multifunction display (SMFD), ordered November 1999.
Mission: Laser ranger and marked target seeker (LRMTS). Provisional selection of Rafael Litening laser designation pod announced February 1996.
Self-defence: RWR; active and passive ECM.

ARMAMENT: Two 30 mm Aden guns in lower fuselage aft of cockpit in single-seater, with 150 rds/gun; single Aden on port side in two-seater (to be removed to accommodate self-protection jammer). One stores attachment on fuselage centreline and two under each wing. Centreline and inboard wing points can each carry up to 1,134 kg (2,500 lb) of weapons, outboard underwing points up to 567 kg (1,250 lb) each. Typical alternative loads include one air-to-surface missile and two 1,200 litre (317 US gallon; 264 Imp gallon) drop tanks; eight 1,000 lb bombs; various combinations of free-fall, laser-guided, retarded or cluster bombs; overwing R.550 Magic missiles; air-to-surface rockets; or a reconnaissance camera pack. Maritime Jaguars equipped with one or two Sea Eagle anti-shipping missiles.

 

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