AIRBUS A310

Canadian Forces designation: CC-150 Polaris

TYPE: Wide-bodied airliner.

PROGRAMME: Launched 7 July 1978; first flight (F-WZLH) 3 April 1982; initial French/German certification 11 March 1983; first deliveries (Lufthansa and Swissair) 29 March 1983, entering service 12 and 21 April respectively; JAA Cat. IIIa certification (France/Germany) September 1983; UK certification January 1984; JAA Cat. IIIb November 1984; FAA type approval early 1985. First flight of extended-range A310-300 8 July 1985 (certified with JT9D-7R4E engines 5 December 1985, delivered to launch customer Swissair 17 December); wingtip fences introduced as standard on A310-200 from early 1986 (first delivery: Thai Airways, 7 May); certification/delivery of A31O-3O0 with CF6-80C2 engines April 1986. with PW4152S June 1987. Russian State Aviation Register certification October 1991 (first Western-built aircraft to achieve this status). A310s powered by PW4000 series and CF6-80C2 approved for 180-minute ETOPS. Enhanced GPWS installed March 1997, following certification.

CURRENT VERSIONS: A310-200: Basic passenger version. Detailed description mainly applies to A310-200.
A310-200C: Convertible version of A310-200; first delivery (Martinair) 29 November 1984.
A310-P2F: Conversion of A310-200 marketed by EADS EFW in Dresden; max payload 40,600 kg (89,508 lb) and max T-O weight 142,000 kg (313,055 lb). Large cargo door in forward fuselage, port side. Main cargo deck accommodates up to eleven 2.44 x 3.18 m (96 x 125 in) or sixteen 2.24 x 3.18 m (88 x 125 in) pallets, or a mix of both; plus further three pallets of former size in underfloor hold, in addition to six LD3s; alternatively 14 LD3s can be carried in underfloor hold. Total available internal volume 302 m3 (10,665 cu ft) standard, or up to 338 m3 (11,936 cu ft) using winged pallets in front belly hold.
A310-300: Extended-range passenger version, launched March 1983; second member of Airbus family to introduce delta-shaped wingtip fences as standard. Extra range provided by increased basic maximum T-O weight (150,000 kg; 330,695 lb) and greater fuel capacity (higher maximum T-O weights optional); standard extra fuel capacity is in tailplane, allowing in-flight CG control for improved fuel efficiency. For extra long range, one or two ACTs (additional centre tanks) can be installed in part of cargo hold; modification certified November 1987 (first customer Wardair of Canada).
A310-300 also available as conversion by EADS/EFW: initial example (for Federal Express) first flown 30 January 2001.

CUSTOMERS: Total of 260 sold and delivered (including prototype). Final aircraft first flew 6 April 1998 and delivered to Uzbekistan Airways on 15 June 1998 as UK-31003.
{OL}Belgian Air Force obtained two second-hand A310-200s in 1997; Canadian Forces operate five A310-300s, German Luftwaffe seven and French Air Force three: last-named have ETOPS for 180 minutes; Spanish intention to buy two for VVIP use, following modification by EADS CASA, announced December 2000. Details of projected military versions appear under Airbus Military Company (AMC).

COSTS: US$86.9 million (2001).

DESIGN FEATURES: Retains same fiiselage cross-section as A300, but with cabin 11 frames shorter and overall fuselage 13 frames shorter than A300B2/B4-100 and -200; new advanced-technology wings of reduced span and area; new and smaller horizontal tail surfaces; common pylons able to support all types of GE and PW engines offered; advanced digital two-man cockpit; landing gear modified to cater for size and weight changes. Wings have 28° sweepback at quarter-chord, root incidence 5° 3', dihedral 11° 8' (inboard) and 4° 3' (outboard) at trailing-edge, and thickness/chord ratios of 15.2 (root), 11.8 (at trailing-edge kink) and 10.8 per cent (tip).

FLYING CONTROLS: Wing leading-edge movable surfaces as for A300-600; trailing-edges each have single Fowler flap outboard, vaned Fowler flap inboard, lateral control by inboard all-speed aileron and fly-by-wire outboard spoilers, without outboard ailerons; all 14 spoilers used as lift dumpers, inner eight also as airbrakes; fly-by-wire spoiler panels controlled by two independent computer systems with different software to ensure redundancy and operational safety. Tail control surfaces as for A300-600.

STRUCTURE: Mainly of high-strength aluminium alloy except for outer shrouds (structure in place of low-speed ailerons), spoilers, wing leading-edge lower access panels and outer deflector doors, nosewheel doors, mainwheel leg fairing doors, engine cowling panels, elevators and fin box, which are all of CFRP; A310 was first production airliner to have carbon fin box, starting with A310-300 for Swissair in December 1985; flap track fairings, flap access doors, rear wing/body fairings, pylon fairings, nose radome, cooling air inlet fairings and tailplane trailing-edges made of AFRP; wing leading-edge top panels, panel aft of rear spar, upper surface skin panels above mainwheel bays, forward wing/body fairings, glideslope antenna cover, fin leading/trailing-edges, fin and tailplane tips (GFRP); and rudder (CFRP/GFRP). Wing box is two-spar multirib metal structure, with top and bottom load-carrying skins. Undertail bumper beneath rear fuselage, to protect structure against excessive nose-up attitude during T-O and landing.
Manufacturing breakdown differs in detail from that of A300-600; Airbus France builds nose section (including flight deck), lower centre-fuselage and wing box, rear wing/body fairings, engine pylons and airbrakes, and is responsible for final assembly; Airbus Deutschland builds forward fuselage, upper centre-fuselage, rear fuselage and associated doors, tailcone, fin and rudder, flaps and spoilers, and fits control surfaces and equipment to main wing structure produced by Airbus UK; Airbus Espana's contribution includes horizontal tail surfaces, nose-gear and mainwheel doors, and forward passenger doors; Stork Aerospace manufactures main landing gear leg doors, wingtips, all-speed ailerons and flap track fairings; wing leading-edge slats and forward wing/fuselage fairings produced by Belgian Belairbus consortium. An A310 of German Luftwaffe used as testbed for fuselage panel constructed from a new lightweight composites material, Glare, in preparation for its use in A380; this is first employment of Glare in a primary structure.

LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type. Twin-wheel steerable nose unit (steering angle 65°/95°) as for A300. Main gear by Messier-Bugatti , each bogie having two tandem-mounted twin-wheel units. Retraction as for A300-600. Standard tyre sizes: main, 46x16-20 (28/30 ply), pressure 11.24 bar (163 lb/sq in); nose, 40x14 or 40x14.0R16 (22/24 ply), pressure 9.03 bar (131 lb/sq in). Two options for low-pressure tyres on main units: (1) size 49x17.0R20 (30/32 ply), pressure 9.86 bar (143 lb/sq in); (2) size 49x19-20, pressure 8.89 bar (129 lb/sq in). Messier-Bugatti brakes and anti-skid units standard; Bendix type optional on A310-200. Carbon brakes standard since 1986. Minimum ground turning radius (effective, aft CG) 18.75 m (61 ft 6 in) about nosewheel, 33.00 m (108 ft 3¼ in) about wingtips.

POWER PLANT: Launched with two 213.5 kN (48,000 lb st) Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7R4D1 or 222.4 kN (50,000 lb st) General Electric CF6-80A3 turbofans; currently available with 238 kN (53,500 lb st) CF6-80C2A2, or 231 kN (52,000 lb st) Pratt & Whitney PW4152. Available from late 1991 with 262 kN (59,000 lb st) CF6-80C2A8 or 249 kN (56,000 lb st) PW4156A.
Total usable fuel capacity 54.920 litres (14,509 US gallons; 12,081 Imp gallons) in A310-200. Increased to 61,070 litres (16,133 US gallons; 13.434 Imp gallons) in basic A310-300 by additional fuel in tailplane trim tank. Further 7,200 litres (1,902 US gallons; 1,584 Imp gallons) can be carried in each, of up to two, additional centre tanks (ACT) in forward part of aft cargo hold. Two refuelling points, one beneath each wing outboard of engine.

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two on flight deck; provision for third and fourth crew seats. Cabin, with six-, seven-, eight- or nine-abreast seating, normally for 210 to 250 passengers, although certified for up to 280; typical two-class layout for 220 passengers (20 first class, six-abreast at 102 cm; 40 in seat pitch, plus 200 economy class mainly eight-abreast at 81 cm; 32 in pitch); maximum capacity for 280 passengers nine-abreast m high-density configuration at pitch of 76 cm (30 in). Standard layout has two galleys and lavatory at forward end of cabin, plus two galleys and four lavatories at rear; depending on customer requirements, second lavatory can be added forward, and lavatories and galleys can be located at forward end at class divider position. Overhead baggage stowage as for A300-600, rising to 0.09 m3 (3.2 cu ft) per passenger in typical economy layout. Four passenger doors, one forward and one aft on each side; oversize Type I emergency exit over wing on each side. Underfloor baggage/cargo holds fore and aft of wings, each with door on starboard side; forward hold accommodates eight LD3 containers or three 2.24 x 3.17 m (88 x 125 m) standard or three 2.44 x 3.17 m (96 x 125 in) optional pallets; rear hold accommodates six LD3 containers, with optional seventh LD3 or LDl position; LD3 containers can be carried two-abreast, and/or standard pallets installed crosswise.

SYSTEMS; Honeywell 331-250 APU. Air conditioning system, powered by compressed air from engines, APU or a ground supply unit; two separate packs; air is distributed to flight deck, three separate cabin zones, electrical and electronic equipment, avionics bay and bulk cargo compartment; ventilation of forward cargo compartments optional. Pressurisation system has maximum normal differential of 0.57 bar (8.25 lb/sq in). Air supply for wing ice protection, engine starting and thrust reverser system bled from various stages of engine compressors, or supplied by APU or ground supply unit.
Hydraulic system (three fully independent circuits operating at 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in) details as described for A300-600).
Electrical system, similar to that of A300-600, consists of a three-phase 115/200 V 400 Hz constant frequency AC system and a 28 V DC system; two 90 kVA engine-driven brushless generators for normal single-channel operation, with automatic transfer of busbar in the event of a generator failure; each has overload rating of 135 kVA for 5 minutes and 180 kVA for 5 seconds; third (identical) AC generator, directly driven at constant speed by APU, can be used during ground operations, and also in flight to compensate for loss of one or both engine-driven generators; current production A310s have APU with improved relight capability, which can be started and operated throughout the flight envelope. Any one generator can provide sufficient power to operate all equipment and systems necessary for indefinite period of safe flight; DC power is generated via three 150 A transformer-rectifiers; three Ni/Cd batteries.
Flight crew oxygen system fed from rechargeable pressure bottle of 2,166 litres (76.5 cu ft ) capacity; standard options are second 76.5 cu ft botfle, a 3,256 litre (115 cu ft) bottle, and an external filling connection; emergency oxygen sets for passengers and cabin attendants. Anti-icing of outer wing leading-edge slats and engine air intakes by hot air bled from engines; and of pitot probes, static ports and plates, and sensors, by electric heating.
For current production A310s, an ETOPS modification kit, as for the A300-600, is available.

AVIONICS: As described for A300-600. A310 was first airliner to introduce CRTs with its ECAM system.

 

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