TYPE: Light attack aircraft
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Italy and Brazil
POWERPLANT: One 49.1kN (11,030lb) Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 807 nonafterburning turbofan built under licence in Italy by Fiat, Piaggio and Alfa Romeo Avio, in cooperation with CELMA in Brazil.
PERFORMANCE: Max speed 915km/h (493kt) at 36,000ft. Max initialrate of climb 10,250ft/min. Service ceiling 42,650ft. Combat radius atmax takeoff weight with 2720kg (6000lb) of external payload lo-lo-lo528km (285nm), hi-lo-hi 925km (500nm); combat radius at typicalmission TO weight with 910kg (2000lb) of external stores lo-lo-lo555km (500nm), hi-lo-hi 890km (480nm).
WEIGHTS: Operating empty 6700kg (14,770lb), max takeoff 13,000kg(28,660lb).
DIMENSIONS: Wing span 8.87m (29ft 2in), length 13.58m (44ft 7in),height 4.58m (15ft Oin). Wing area 21.0m2 (226.1 sq ft).
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only, seating for two in tandem in trainer.
ARMAMENT: Internal armament of a 20mm six barrel General ElectricM61A1 Vulcan cannon in Italian aircraft, two 30mm DEFA cannons in Brazilian aircraft. External armament of up to 3800kg (8375lb) on four under wing, one centreline and two wingtip stations. Armaments include wingtip mounted AIM-9 Sidewinder or MAA-1 Piranha AAMs, unguided bombs, rockets and cluster munitions.
OPERATORS: Brazil, Italy.
HISTORY: The AMX consortium resulted from similar air force specifications for a replacement for the G91 and F-104 (in ground attack roles) in Italian service, and the AT-26 Xavante (MB-326) in Brazilian service.
In the late 1970s Aermacchi was working with Embraer on the A-X, an Xavante replacement, while the Italian Air Force issued a formal requirement for a G91 replacement in 1977. Initial work on the AMX began in 1978 when Aeritalia (now Alenia) teamed with Aermacchi. Thus the involvement of Embraer, who joined the program in 1980 and who had been working with Aermacchi, was a logical development.
With an initial agreement for 266 production aircraft (79 for Brazil, 187 for Italy) reached in 1981, development of the AMX gathered pace and the first development prototype flew for the first time on May 15 1984. Construction of the first batch of 30 production aircraft and the design of a two seat AMX-T trainer began in mid 1986, while the first production aircraft, for Italy, first flew in May 1988.
Design of the AMX is fairly conservative, with power supplied by the proven Spey turbofan. Design features include NOTAS controlsand HUD, multi function displays, INS navigation and ECM, with provisionin the nose for FLIR or radar (Aermacchi has flown an AMX-Tfitted with a GRIFO radar). In addition, three different Aeroelectronica of Brazil developed reconnaissance pallets can be fitted in the forward fuselage, while recce pods can be fitted on the external hard points. The AMX-T could also be adopted for ECR and anti shipping.
The workshare arrangements of AMX has Alenia as program leader with a 46.7% share of production, Aermacchi with a 23.6% share and Embraer with 29.7%. Component manufacture is not duplicated, however there are separate final assembly lines in Italy and Brazil. An export order from Thailand was subsequetly cancelled.