TYPE: Twin-jet airliner.
PROGRAMME: Launched 1986, with target first flight in 1991 and service entry in 1995; chief designer Igor Kaligin. First prototype Tu-334 (RA-94001) eventually rolled out at Zhukovsky during Moscow Air Show, 25 August 1995; then scheduled to fly 1996 with D-436T1 engines, but delayed by funding shortages. Refinancing by Ukrainian government in early 1997 resulted in new target date of May/June 1997 for first Tu-334s built by Aviant at Kiev; this also missed; second and third identical, but non-flying, prototypes under construction at Zhukovsky by 1996; second used for static tests at CAHI (TsAGI) 1996; unidentified test airframe delivered to Aviatest LNK at Riga from Kiev in mid-2000 to simulate 20 year fatigue life; further two prototypes and three production aircraft under construction at Kiev by early 1999 (three for full assembly by Aviant; part of fuselage and wings of other two for delivery to RSK 'MiG' at Lukhovitsy). RA-94001 eventually flown 8 February 1999 and had achieved eight sorties by time of public debut at Moscow in August 1999. Plans for 200 flights in 2001 not achieved (114 only), and total of only some 180 hours in 144 flights logged by April 2002. Only about one-quarter of planned 900 test and certification flights achieved by mid-2003, at which time second flying prototype (Aviant-built 005) said to be more than 90 per cent complete; was rolled out 2 August 2003 and scheduled to make maiden flight in late September. Completion of third development aircraft (003, first by RSK 'MIG'), anticipated by June 2003, has also slipped, but hoped to be achieved in fourth quarter of 2003.
AP-25/FAR Pt 25 certification programme was due for completion in 2001, but victim of above-mentioned delays, created by erratic funding and delayed delivery of D-436 engines; certification and deliveries now seen as unlikely before 2004 at earliest. TANTK at Taganrog was to have been second source for -100, but Russian government decree of 5 October 1999 nominated RSK 'MiG' (which is to contribute half of certification costs, first payment being made in January 2002); first Taganrog fuselage transported to Voronin Production Centre, Moscow, arriving 7 April 2000. Completion and final assembly was to have been in second quarter of 2001, but this not achieved (see above); Taganrog horizontal tail delivered early 2002. Half of all assemblies and components for RSK 'MiG' production to be supplied by Aviant; other components supplied by Kazan and Ulyanovsk factories.
On 16 June 1997 Rolls-Royce Deutschland agreed loan of BR710 engines to build prototype of Tu-334-120; first flight of -120 had been expected late 1998, but delayed by funding shortages. Revised plans for BR710s to go into -100 prototype, after short test programme with D-436s, also thwarted by aircraft's continued grounding. R-R support now directed at versions powered by BR715 engines.
During mid-1997, AIO of Iran showed interest in establishing a kit assembly line at Esfahan for 100 Tu-334s over 15 years. Negotiations still proceeding in 2002, based on eventual fuselage detailed assembly in Iran, with complete wings from Ukraine and empennage from Russia; peak production of 12 per year envisaged.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Tu-334-100: Basic version, with D-436T1 engines, for 72 mixed class or 102 tourist class passengers. Prototypes are of this version.
Tu-334-100C: Combi version of -100; up to six 2.24 x 3.17 m (88 x 125 in) pallets in underfloor compartments.
Tu-334-100M: Variant of -100; MTOW 47,700 kg (105,160 lb); range 1,684 n miles (3,120 km; 1,938 miles). Possibly superseded by -100D.
Tu-334-100D: Extended-range version, announced at Moscow Air Show '95. Basically similar to Tu-334-100, but with increased wing span and uprated D-436T2 engines; increased fuel and maximum T-O weight; 102 seats.
Tu-334-100DS: Cargo version of -100D; max payload 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).
Tu-334-120: As Tu-334-100, but two 88.9 kN (19,995 lb st) Rolls-Royce Deutschland BR715-56 turbofans. Third flying prototype to be in this configuration.
Tu-334-120D: Rolls-Royce Deutschland BR715-56 engines; increased weight and range. Announced 1998.
Tu-334-200: Basically similar to Tu-334-100D and alternatively known as Tu-354; D-436T2 engines; fuselage lengthened by 3.90 m (12 ft 91/2 in) to accommodate up to 126 passengers at 81 cm (32 in) pitch; increased wing span; four-wheel bogies on main landing gear units. Construction of four by Aviacor in Samara reportedly begun by early 1997, but no recent news from this quarter and Aviacor no longer mentioned in connection with Tu-334 programme.
Tu-334-200C: Variant of -200; combi with same payload.
Tu-334-220: Further increased MTOW: BR715-56 engines. Announced 1998.
Tu-334-220D: Extended-range version of -220.
Tu-334C: Cargo version; at design study stage 1995.
Tu-336: Cryogenic-fuelled version of Tu-334 with 13,000 kg (28,660 lb) of liquid natural gas in two faired tanks extending full length of cabin roof; Ivchenko Progress D-436T2 engines; 102 passengers; range 1,457 n miles (2,700 km; 1,677 miles). Revealed 1998; still planned eventually, but no recent news.
CUSTOMERS: Provisional orders in 1995 for approximately 40 aircraft, for Rossiya Airlines, Bashkiri Airlines, Tyumen Airlines and Tatarstan Airlines; total increased to 300 from 24 airlines by 2003. MoU for 20 Tu-334-120s signed by Aeroflot in June 2000; other letters of intent from Atlant Soyuz (two) and Pulkovo (15 to 20) during first half of 2002. First firm orders (five Tu-334-100s each for Aerofraht and Atlant Soyuz Airlines) announced by RSK 'MiG' at MAKS air show, August 2003; deliveries, to latter, to begin in 2005. CIS market estimated as about 350 by Rosavaikosmos; by 1999. Iranian airlines committed to purchase 50 from local assembly.
COSTS: Tu-334-100 US$16 million to US$18 million; Tu-334-200 US$20 million (both 2003). Break-even at 48th aircraft, according to RSK 'MiG'.
DESIGN FEATURES: Replacement for Tu-134 and Yak-42, to meet requirements of Russian Federation and Associated States (CIS) airlines. Wings have much in common with those of Tu-204 and the fuselage is shortened version of Tu-204, with identical flight deck. Configuration is all-swept low/mid-wing, with rear-mounted engines and T tail; circular-section semi-monocoque fuselage; wings have dihedral from roots. Short-stroke landing gear for minimal door sill height, to facilitate baggage handling at airports with limited loading capabilities. Service life 60,000 hours.
Wings have supercritical section, 24 o sweepback, with winglets.
FLYING CONTROLS: Main and standby fly-by-wire; emergency hydraulic and mechanical back-up, except for ailerons. Two-section, single-slotted, trailing-edge flaps, two-section airbrakes forward of inner flap and two-section spoilers forward of outer flap on each wing; four-section leading-edge slat over full span each wing; conventionalailerons, elevators and two-section rudder; no tabs. Variable-incidence tailplane.
STRUCTURE: Composites and other lightweight materials make up 20 per cent of structure by weight. Metal alloy wing, fin and horizontal tail, each constructed on two spars, have composites leading-edges and covered by milled panels. Elevators, ailerons, airbrakes, spoilers, flaps, rudder and floor panels of composites honeycomb. Fuselage of metal alloy with riveted skin. Final assembly at Aviant (Ukraine) and RSK 'MiG' at Lukhovitsy.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type; twin wheels on each unit of Tu-334-100, four-wheel bogies on main units of Tu-334-200; main units retract inward into wing/fuselage fairings; trailing-link mainwheel legs on Tu-334-100; nosewheels retract forwards, forward elements of two-section door each side remaining closed except during cycling. Some recent Tupolev illustrations have shown all versions of Tu-334 with four-wheel main bogies. Tyre size 1,070x390-480R on mainwheels; 680x260-355R on nosewheels. Stout grille behind mainwheels of prototype to prevent ice and slush entering turbofans.
POWER PLANT: Tu-334-100: Two Ivchenko Progress D-436T1 turbofans, each rated at 73.6 kN (16,535 lb st).
Tu-334-100D/200: Two D-436T2 turbofans, each rated at 80.4 kN (18,078 lb st).
Tu-334-120/-120D/-220: Rolls-Royce Deutschland BR715-56 turbofans each rated at 88.9 kN (19,995 lb st). D-436T1 production by consortium of Motor-Sich at Zaporozhye (Ukraine), Salyut and UMPO.
Fuel in integral wing tanks, total capacity (Tu-334-100) 10,100 kg (22,267 lb).
ACCOMMODATION (Tu-334-100 and -120): Crew of two (optionally three) on 'Tu-204 compliant' flight deck; provision for fourth seat for instructor or observer. Three basic single-aisle passenger arrangements: (1) 72 seats, with 12 seats four-abreast in first class cabin at front, at pitch of 102 cm (40 in) and with 73 cm (28.75 in) aisle, and 60 tourist class seats six-abreast at 81 cm (32 in) pitch with 49.5 cm (19.5 in) aisle; (2) 102 seats, all tourist, at 81 cm (32 in) pitch; and (3) 74 seats, with eight business class and 66 in economy class. All three configurations have buffet/galley, coat compartment and lavatory immediately behind flight deck, a further lavatory and service compartment at rear; 72-seater has additional galleys at front and rear; overhead stowage for hand baggage. Other arrangements at customer's option. Passenger doors at front and rear of cabin on port side; service doors opposite. Underfloor baggage/freight holds; doors on starboard side.
ACCOMMODATION (Tu-334-200/Tu-354): Flight deck unchanged. Two basic single-aisle passenger arrangements: (1) 110 seats, with eight seats four-abreast in first class cabin at front, at pitch of 99 cm (39 in), and 102 tourist class seats six-abreast at 81 cm (32 in) pitch; (2) 126 seats, all tourist, at 81 cm (32 in) pitch. Facilities as Tu-334-100/120, plus emergency exit over wing each side.
SYSTEMS: APU in tailcone. Hydraulic system for actuation of flying controls. Air conditioning unit in wing centre-section.
AVIONICS: Radar: Nose-mounted weather radar.
Instrumentation: EFIS standard, with six CRTs. Satcom optional. Equipment for landings in ICAO Cat. IIIa conditions.