General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

Israel Defence Force names: F-16C Barak (Lightning), F-16D Brakeet (Thunderbolt) and F-16I Suefa (Storm)
Turkish Air Force name: Savasan Sahin (Fighting Falcon)
Ubited Arab Emirates Air Force name: Desert Falcon

TYPE: Multirole fighter.

PROGRAMME: Emerged from General Dynamics YF-16 of US Air Force Lightweight Fighter prototype programme in 1972; first flight of prototype YF-16 (72-01567) 2 February 1974; first flight of second prototype (72-01568) 9 May 1974; selected for full-scale development (FSD) 13 January 1975; day fighter requirement extended to add air-to-ground capability with multimode radar and all-weather navigation; production of FSD aircraft began July 1975; first flight of FSD aircraft 8 December 1976. F-16 achieved 5 millionth flying hour late in 1993; 10 millionth flying hour passed in March 2002. 4,000th aircraft delivered (to Egyptian Air Force) on 28 April 2000; total of 4,090 delivered as at 1 August 2003; 71 scheduled to be handed over in 2003, including 9 from KAI.
Total of 234 F-16s ordered in 2000, increasing sales to 4,285 as of 1 january 2001; Israeli and Greek decisions to exercise options on additional F-16s raised total sales to 4,347 at end of 2001. Further orders placed by Chile (10 aircraft) and Oman (12) in 2002, increased sales to 4,369 by end of 2002; 48 aircraft to be acquired by Poland, raising total sales to 4,417 at start of 2003.

CURRENT VERSIONS: F-16A: First version for air-to-air and air-to-ground missions; not currently in production, but aircraft in storage available for export customers.
F-16B: Standard tandem two-seat version of F-16A; fully operational both cockpits; fuselage length unaltered; reduced fuel.
F-16C/D: Single-seatv and two-seat USAF Multinational Staged Improvement Program (MSIP) aircraft respectively, implemented February 1980. MSIP expands growth capability to allow for precision ground attack and DVR missiles, and all-weather, night and day missions; Stage I applied to Block 15 F-16A/Bs delivered from November 1981; Stage II applied to Block 25 F-16C/Ds from July 1984 includes core avionics, cockpit and airframe changes. Block 25 aircraft originally delivered with F100-PW-200 engine, but all surviving examples now have F100-PW-220E following retrofit, as well as other improvements as detailed under Stage III of MSIP. Stage III involved installation of systems as they became available, beginning 1988 and extending to Block 50/52, including selected retrofits back to Block 25. Changes include Northrop Grumman AN/APG-68 multimode radar with improved range, resolution, more operating modes and better ECCM than AN/APG-66; advanced cockpit with multifunction displays and upfront controls, BAE Systems wide-angle HUD, Fairchild mission data transfer equipment and radar altimeter; expanded base of fin giving space for proposed later fitment of AN/ALQ-165 Airborne Self-Protection Jamming system (since cancelled, though now being installed in Korean aircraft); increased electrical power and cooling capacity; structural provision for increased take-off weight and manoeuvring limits; and smart weapons such as AIM-120A AMRAAM and AGM-65D IR Maverick.
Common engine bay introduced at Block 30/32 (FMS deliveries from December 1985 and USAF deliveries from July 1986) to allow fitting of either P&W F100-PW-220 (Block 32) or GE F110-GE-100 (Block 30) Alternate Fighter Engine. Other changes include computer memory expansion and seal-bonded fuselage fuel tanks. First USAF wing to use F-16C/Ds with F110 engines was 86th TFW at Ramstein AB, Germany, from October 1986. Additions in 1987 included voice message unit, doubled chaff/flare capacity, repositioning of RWR antennas to provide bette coverage in forward hemisphere, Shrike anti-radiation missiles (from August 1997), crash survivable flight data recorder and modular common inlet duct ('large-mouth') allowing full thrust from F110 at low airspeeds.
Software upgraded for full Level IV multitarget compatibility with AMRAAM early 1988. Industry sponsored development of radar missile capability for several air forces resulted in firing of AIM-7F and AIM-7M missiles from F-16C in May 1988; capability introduced mid-1991; missiles guided using pulse Doppler illumination while tracking targets in a high PRF mode of the AN/APG-68 radar.
Block 40/42 Night Falcon (deliveries from December 1988) upgrades include AN/APG-68(V)1 radar allowing 100 hour operation before maintenance, full compatibility with Lockheed Martin low-altitude navigation and targeting infra-red for night (LANTIRN) pods, four-channel digital flight control system, expanded capacity core computers, diffractive optics HUD, enhanced envelope gunsight, GPS, improved leading-edge flap drive system, improved cockpit ergonomics, high gross weight landing gear, structural strengthening, increased performance battery and provision for improved EW equipment, including advanced interference blanker. LANTIRN targeting pod gives day/night standoff target identification, automatic target handoff multiple launch of Mavericks, autonomous laser-guided bomb delivery and precision air-to-ground laser ranging. LANTIRN navigation pod provides real-world IR view through HUD for night flight plus automatic/manual terrain following with dedicated radar sensor. Combat Edge pressure breathing system installed 1991 for higher pilot g tolerance.
A total of 39 Block 40 F-16C/Ds of the 31st FW was involved in a quick response capability (QRC) modification effort, known as 'Sure Strike', to install Improved Data Modem (IDM) equipment. Work was undertaken by a joint USAF/LMTAS team at Aviano AB, Italy, and was completed in December 1995, these being the first Block 40 aircraft to receive the IDM which is standard equipment on current production Block 50 F-16s. In mid-1998, a demonstration programme was conducted to adapt existing IDM with Lockheed Martin kit to provide 'Gold Strike' system capable of two-way transmission of digitised video imagery of targets and thus enhance pilot's situational awareness.
First Block 40 F-16C/Ds issued in late 1990 to 363rd FW (Shaw AFB, South Carolina); first LANTIRN pods to 36th FS/51st FW at Osan, South Korea, in 1992. USAF Block 40/42 F-16Cs unofficially designated F-16CG. Following retirement of F-111F, Block 40/42 F-16Cs and F-16Ds with LANTIRN comprise more than 50 per cent of USAF night/precision strike force. All USAF F-16Cs and F-16Ds to receive FLIR targeting pod capability.
Block 50/52 (deliveries began with F-16C 90-0801 in October 1991 for operational testing) upgrades include F110-GE-129 and F100-PW-229 increased performance engines (IPE), AN/APG-68(V)5 radar with advanced programmable signal processor employing VHSIC technology, Have Quick IIA UHF radio and AN/ALR-56M advanced RWR. Changes initiated at Block 50D/52D in 1993 include full integration of HARM antiradiation missiles via HARM aircraft launcher interface computer (ALIC), improved data modem (IDM), upgraded programmable display generator with growth potential for colour and map, expanded data transfer cartridge, ring laser INS (Honeywell and Litton units both used) and improved VHF/FM antenna. AN/ALE-47 advanced chaff/flare dispenser fitted to all FMS Block 50 aircraft delivered after mid-1996 and incorporated as standard on USAF aircraft with effect from FY97 purchase; also retrofitted to earlier USAF Block 40/50 aircraft.
First Block 50D/52D (91-0360) delivered to USAF on 7 May 1993; optimised for defence suppression missions, having software for horizontal situation display on existing two MFDs and provision for one of 112 HARM (AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile) targeting systems ordered by USAF; sensor in pod on starboard side of engine inlet; AN/ASQ-213 HARM targeting system (HTS) has capability similar to F-4G 'Wild Weasel' which it replaced in SEAD role. USAF has a current programme to raise HARM targeting system inventory to 150 pods and is incorporating an upgrade that features software and hardware improvements enabling more targets to be tracked with enhanced ambiguity resolution and speedier reaction time.
Deliveries of Block 50/52 began to 4th FS of 388th FW at Hill AFB, Utah, from October 1992; others to 52nd FW at Spangdahlem, Germany, replacing Block 30 aircraft from (first delivery) 20 February 1993. Block 50D/52D aircraft initially to 309th FS (now 79th FS) of 363rd (now 20th) FW at Shaw AFB, South Carolina; followed by 23rd FS/52nd FW at Spangdahlem, Germany, from 14 January 1994, then squadrons at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, and Misawa, Japan. Production for USAF was due to terminate with FY94 batch, but six additional F-16Cs funded in each of FY96 and FY97, plus three in FY98, one in FY99, 10 in FY00 and four in FY01; FY96 and subsequent aircraft to Block 50 standard. F-16s delivered from mid-2000 (FY97 and later) to improved configuration, incorporating modular mission computer by Raytheon (replacing three core avionics processors) that was developed for F-16A/B MLU programme, Honeywell colour liquid crystal multifunction displays (replacing monochrome CRT MFDs), Honeywell colour programmable display generator, Teac colour airborne videotape recorder, colour cockpit TV sensor and Litton onboard oxygen generating system (OBOGS). FY00 and subsequent aircraft have AN/APX-113 and associated avionics improvements. Majority of FY00 and FY01 aircraft delivered to USAF between April and December 2002, but final Block 50 will receive full CCIP upgrade before being handed over in December 2004. USAF Block 50/52 F-16Cs unofficially designated F-16CJ.
First Samsung-assembled F-16C Block 52D rolled out in South Korea on 7 November 1995. First flight of initial TAI-built F-16C Block 50D in late May 1996, with delivery to Turkish Air Force following on 29 July; last TAI-produced F-16 delivered October 1999. First Block 50D delivered to Greece 29 January 1997. First Block 52D delivered to Singapore 30 January 1998. First production lease (PL) Block 52D aircraft for Singapore was delivered 28 May 1998; this was under terms of commercial contract, with delivery achieved in less than 24 months from placing of order.
First delivery of F-16C Block 52 in Korea Fighter Program II in June 2003; aircraft produced under license by KAI.
Advanced Block 50/52: Latest production version, originally referred to as Block 50+/52+. Basic configuration includes upgraded AN/APG-68(V)9 radar with 30 per cent greater air-to-air detection range and synthetic apertute radar (SAR) mode for high-resolution mapping and target detection/recognition. Is also compatible with latest FLIR navigation and targeting pod systems and has upgrated core avionics, including an improved modular mission computer, two 102 mm (4 in) colour cockpit displays, cockpit and exterior lighting compatible with night vision goggles, helmet-mounted cueing system, a digital terrain system, IFF interrogator/transponder, high off-boresight missile compatibility. Link 16 datalink and OBOGS. Available with a choice of internal electronic countermeasures equipment and able to take various customer-unique systems. Maximum take-off gross weight increased to 21,772 kg (48,000 lb). Can be fitted with new, low-drag, conformal fuel tanks, with combined capacity of 1,705 litres (450 US gallons; 375 Imp gallons). Additional fuel in optional 2,271 litre (600 US gallon; 500 Imp gallon) auxiliary wing tanks. Two-seat aircraft have a rear cockpit configured for either a weapon system operator or instructor pilot (converted with a single switch), plus a dorsal avionics compartment that accommodates all of the systems of the single-seat aircraft, plus additional chaff/flare dispensers and specialised mission equipment.
First customer for this enhanced version was Greece which revealed intention on 30 April 1999 to buy as many as 70 Block 52s. Contract subsequently placed for 50 aircraft, with fixed price option for up to 10 more that was converted to firm order on 14 September 2001. Aircraft deliveries began 2 April 2003 with handover of first five aircraft (three F-16C and two F-16D) at Fort Worth; both F-16Ds and one F-16C initially to be retained in USA for training and test purposes. Other customers for Advanced Block 50/52 aircraft are Chile (Block 50), Oman (Block 50) and Poland (Block 52); Israel is also to acquire Advanced Block 52 aircraft.
'GF-16C': Unofficial designation allocated to non-flying aircraft in use at Sheppard AFB for instructional purposes from 1993.
USAF F-16C/D Retrofit Programmes: F-16 originally designed to fly 8,000 hours based on specified usage spectrum, but actual usage has in most cases been more severe, with aircraft regularly flying at higher operational weights than originally predicted. USAF F-16C/D aircraft have undergone structural upgrade programme known as 'Falcon UP', but this is being superseded by 'Falcon STAR' (structural augmentation roadmap). Modifications accomplished under these two programmes will ensure that aircraft achieve 8,000 hour service life, without depot inspection. Many changes incorporated in production aircraft, but older F-16 models will need more extensive modification. USAF 'Falcon STAR' retrofit kit proofing is being conducted in 2003, with pilot production and installation to start in 2004. At least 10 other countries are involved in this programme.
ANG/AFRC Block 25/30/32 F-16C/Ds subject to combat upgrade plan integration details (CUPID) which completed by mid-2003, CUPID brought approximately 620 older F-16s to a standard close to that of the Block 50/52 aircraft. Among the improvements incorporated are situation awareness datalink (SADL), improved airborne videotape recorder, colour camera, initial NVG-compatible cockpit lighting, LANTRIN and Rafael Litening II FLIR targeting pod capability, AN/ALQ-213 countermeasures control system and provisions for GPS/laser gyro INS. Future improvements include expanded central computer, joint helmet-mounted cueing system, AIM-9X missile, follow-on NVIS capability, PIDS-3 pylon upgrade for smart weapon compatibility, ACES II ejection seat improvements, enhanced main battery and software upgrades.
Block 40/42 F-16C/Ds are currently being upgraded to include NVG compatibility, MD-1295/A improved data modem, digital terrain system, AN/ALE-47 chaff dispenser, towed decoy and smart weapons compatibility (including the GBU-27, JDAM, JSOW and WCMD). Block 50/52 F-16C/Ds already have these capabilities. Three squadrons of ANG Block 42 aircraft currently receiving F100-PW-229 engine as replacement for original F100-PW-220; first engines installed in mid-2002 and subsequently deployed to Middle East.
In June 1998, USAF launched an upgrade effort known as common configuration implementation program (CCIP), which is intended to provide common hardware and software capability to 648 Block 40/42/50/52 aircraft. CCIP ia a multiphase effort and is being implemented in stages, based on availability of subsystems. Work is being undertaken at the Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill AFB, Utah, to where the first eight modification kits were shipped on 29 June 2001; these Phase 1 kits include the modular mission computer and colour MFDs applicable to 107 older aircraft of the Block 50/52 versions. The first aircraft was completed ahead of schedule and delivered to the 20th FW on 11 January 2002.
Phase 1A Block 50/52 kits include the AN/APX-113 combined electronic interrogator/transponder which gives autonomous BVR intercept capability. These aircraft also capable of alternative carriage of an advanced Lockheed Martin Sniper XR FLIR targeting pod in addition to the HARM targeting system pod. The first of 251 aircraft to receive this capability was delivered in October 2002; first operational unit to get Phase 1A aircraft is 389th Fighter Squadron at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho.
Phase 2, fielded in July 2003, adds Link 16 multifunctional information distribution system (MIDS) datalink, the Vision Systems International joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) and an electronic horizontal situation indicator to 251 Block 50/52 aircraft. Starting in 2005, total of 397 Block 40/42 Fighting Falcons are due to receive the full package of modifications detailed above in Phase 3 of CCIP upgrade.
Block 60: Future version, currently in development, and was expected to be rolled out in late 2003. Basic Block 60 has Northrop Grumman AN/APG-80 multimode radar with active electronically scanned array (AESA) antenna, offering numerous advantages, including mode interleaving. This version also has internal Northrop Grumman AN/AAQ-32 FLIR navigation and targeting system, plus advanced cockpit layout, with three 127 x 178 mm (5 x 7 in) colour liquid crystal displays having picture-in-picture and moving map capability. New core avionics suite based on advanced mission computer utilising commercial hardware and software and a high-speed fibre optic databus. Other improvements include digital fuel management system, higher-capacity environmental control system, new air data system (eliminating probe on tip of nose) and expanded digital flight control system with additional automatic modes, such as terrain following. Specialised equipment includes Northrop Grumman Falcon Edge advanced internal ECM system and Thales secure radio and datalink. Block 60 power plant is General Electric F110-GE-132 engine in the 144.65 kN (32,000 lb st) class. high-capacity tyres and brakes, allowing maximum take-off gross weight to rise to 22,679 kg (50,000 lb). Many of the features introduced by Advanced Block 50/52 aircraft also being adopted as standard on the Block 60, including conformal fuel tanks.
United Arab Emirates announced selection of the F-16 Block 60 Desert Falcon on 12 May 1998, although signature of contract delayed until first quarter of 2000. Total of 80 aircraft will be delivered between 2004 and 2007. Rollout of the first Block 60 F-16 expected in late 2003, with first three two-seaters to be used for flight testing. Unofficial designation F-16F understood to apply to these three aircraft in order to comply with FAA regulations.
Initial deliveries to UAE will be to so-called Lot 1 configuration which marries Block 50 capability to new EW suite, advanced cockpit and new radar. Lot 2 will become available in early 2006 and feature advanced EW modes as well as terrain-following radar capability and additional weaponry; definitive Lot 3 version in 2007 will include BAE Systems TERPROM digital terrain aviodance and navigation system and, possibly, a helmet-mounted cueing system.
NF-16D: Variable stability in-flight simulator test aircraft (VISTA) modified from Block 30 F-16D (86-0048) ordered December 1988 to replace NT-33A testbed. Features include Calspan variable stability flight control system, fully programmable cockpit controls and displays, additional computer suite, permanent flight test data recording system, variable feel centrestick and sidestick in front cockpit, with latter also available for use in F-16 mode; safety pilot in rear cockpit. Internal gun, RWR and chaff/flare equipment removed, providing space for Phase II and III growth including additional computer, reprogrammable display generator and customer hardware allowance. Dorsal avionics compartment in bulged spine. Aircraft transferred to USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB in 2001 to support TPS missions and various research and development activities. Aircraft participated in USAF Auto Air Collision Avoidance System demonstration in mid-2003.
F-16I: Two-seat version, basically similar to Advanced Block 52, for Israel, featuring Pratt & Whitney F-100 PW-229 engine, conformal fuel tanks and SAR. Will incorporate Northrop Grumman AN/APG-68(V)9 radar and significant amount of Israeli avionics, including EW suite, cockpit displays and helmet-mounted sight and advanced self-protection system (ASPS). EW suite, by Elisra, will include radar and missile approach warning systems plus jammers, while Elbit Systems to provide head-up display system, central mission computer, advanced display processor, DASH IV display and sight helmet system and stores management systems. RADA teamed with Smiths Aerospace to supply data acquisition system; Elop to provide HUD unit. Aircraft also to utilise Rafael Litening II targeting pod. total of 50 initially purchased in US$2.5 billion deal, with delivery to begin in 2003 and continue until 2008; further 60 aircraft on option, of which 52 subsequently converted to firm order on 19 December 2001. First aircraft completed in June 2003, thereafter being modified to accommodate flight test instrumentation.
F-16N: US Navy supersonic adversary aircraft (SAA) modified from F-16C/D Block 30. Four of 26 were two-seat TF-16N. Entire fleet retired during 1994-95.
FS-X and TFS-X: F-16 design selected by Japan Defence Agency as basis for its FS-X (now F-2) requirement 19 October 1987.
F-16 Recce: Following trials with a prototype system in mid-1995, an LMTAS-designed reconnaissance pod for the US Air National Guard was flown for the first time on 29 September 1995 and subsequently tested on an F-16C (86-227) of the 149th Fighter Squadron, Virginia ANG. Four pods were built and then deployed with the 149th FS to Aviano AB, Italy, in May 1996 for operational validation in support of NATO missions over Bosnia. This successful trial culminated in decision to procure a total of 20 podded systems for service with F-16C Block 30 aircraft of five ANG squadrons, each of which will have four pods and one ground exploitation system. The core of the programme, known as the BAE Systems Theater Airborne Reconnaissance System (TARS), is the Per Udsen MRP with USAF-supplied KS-87 cameras incorporating E-O video back instead of wet film; the Lockheed Martin Fairchild Systems medium-altitude E-O (MAEO) camera; an Ampex DCRsi-240 digital data recorder and a TERMA Elektronik cockpit control device. The TARS pods were delivered in 1999 and certified for operational use by the F-16 in first half of 2000. Egypt ordered six TARS pods and two ground stations at beginning of 2003.
Elta EL/M-2060P pod also cleared for use by F-16 in 1999. System is contained in standard 300 US gallon drop tank and comprises autonomous, all-weather, day and night high-resolution reconnaissance synthetic aperture radar sensor with ability to transmit imagery to ground station via bidirectional datalink.
Most F-16s delivered since the early 1990s have provisions for a reconnaissance pod. Final 20 aircraft for South Korea (15 F-16C and 5 F-16D) will be configured for reconnaissance mission, although decision on which system to use is not expected to be made until 2004; delivery of these aircraft began in mid-2003.
F-16ES: Enhanced Strategic two-seat, long-range interdictor F-16 proposal; now defunct but provided basis for Advanced Block 50/52 and Israeli F-16I.
F-16U: Proposed two-seat version unsuccessfully offered to United Arab Emirates.
F-16 'Falcon 2000': Private venture design of early 1990s, similar to F-16U, which Lockheed Martin aimed at USAF as a follow-on to the F-16 before introduction of JSF. Also known as the F-16X; now defunct.

CUSTOMERS: Total 4,417 production aircraft ordered or requested by September 2003, including planned USAF procurement of 2,230 and 28 embargoed Pakistan Air Force examples that are to be distributed equally between the USAF and US Navy. Backlog of 327 aircraft at end of August 2003 ensures continued F-16 production through 2008.

COSTS: Approximately US$35 million, flyaway, depending on configuration. Sale of 48 aircraft to Poland valued at US$3.5 billion.

DESIGN FEATURES: Conceived as 'lo' complement to Boeing F-15 Eagle in hi-lo fighter mix; optimised for high agility in air combat. Cropped delta wings blended with fuselage, with highly swept vortex control strakes along fuselage forebody and joining wings to increase lift and improve directional stability at high angles of attack; wing section NACA 64A-204; leading-edge sweepback 40o; relaxed stability (rearward CG) to increase manoeuvrability; deep wingroots increase rigidity, save 113 kg (250 lb) structure weight and increase fuel volume; fixed geometry engine intake; pilot's ejection seat inclined 30o rearwards; single-piece birdproof forward canopy section; two ventral fins below wing trailing-edge.
Baseline F-16 airframe life planned as 8,000 hours with average usage of 55.5 per cent in air combat training, 20 per cent ground attack 24.5 per cent general flying; structural strengthening programme for pre-Block 50 aircraft was required during 1990s.

FLYING CONTROLS: Four-channel digital fly-by-wire (analogue in earlier variants); pitch/lateral control by pivoting monobloc tailerons and wing-mounted flaperons; maximum rate of flaperon movement 52o/s; automatic wing leading-edge manoeuvring flaps programmed for Mach number and angle of attack; flaperons and tailerons interchangeable left and right; sidestick control column with force feel replacing almost all stick movement.

STRUCTURE: Wing, mainly of light alloy, has 11 spars, five ribs and single-piece upper and lower skins; attached to fuse-lage by machined aluminium fittings; leading-edge flaps are one-piece bonded aluminium honeycomb and driven by rotary actuators; fin is multispar, multirib with graphite epoxy skins; brake parachute or ECM housed in fairing aft of fin root; tailerons have graphite epoxy laminate skins, attached to corrugated aluminium pivot shaft and removable full-depth aluminium honeycomb leading-edge; ventral fins have aluminium honeycomb and skins; split speedbrakes in fuselage extensions inboard of tailerons open to 60o. Nose radome by Brunswick Corporation.

LANDING GEAR: Goodrich (formerly Menasco) hydraulically retractable type, nose unit retracting rearward and main units forward into fuselage. Nosewheel is located aft of intake to reduce the risk of foreign objects being thrown into the engine during ground operation, and rotates 90o during retraction to lie horizontally under engine air intake duct. Oleo-pneumatic struts in all units. Aircraft Braking Systems mainwheels and brakes; Goodyear or Goodrich tubeless mainwheel tyres, size 27.75x8.75-14.5 (or 27.75x8.75R14.5) (24 ply), pressure 14.48 to 15.17 bar (210 to 220 lb/sq in) at T-O weights less than 13,608 kg (30,000 lb). Steerable nosewheel with Goodyear, Goodrich or Dunlop tubeless tyre, size 18x5.7-8 (18 ply), pressure 20.68 to 21.37 bar (300 to 310 lb/sq in) at T-O weights less than 13,608 kg (30,000 lb). All but two main unit components interchangeable. Brake-by-wire system on main gear, with Aircraft Braking Systems anti-skid units. Runway arresting hook under rear fuselage; Irvin 7.01 m (23 ft 0 in) diameter braking parachute fitted in Greek and Turkish (Block 30/40 only) F-16s. Israeli (F-16C/D models only) and Singaporean (F-16Ds) aircraft have braking parachute compartment configured for electronic equipment. Landing/taxying lights on nose landing gear door.

POWER PLANT: One 131.6 kN (29,588 lb st) General Electric F110-GE-129, or one 129.4 kN (29,000 lb st) Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 afterburning turbofan as alternative standard. These Increased Performance Engines (IPE) installed from late 1991 in Block 50 and Block 52 aircraft and are being retrofitted to about 50 Block 42 aircraft of the Air National Guard. Pratt & Whitney has proposed F100-PW-229A version, with new fan module among other radical improvements that will raise airflow by more than 10 per cent, lower turbine temperatures by almost 50oC (122oF) and permit inspection intervals to rise from 4,300 cycles to 6,000. New version offers potential to increase maximum augmented thrust rating to about 142 kN (31,860 lb st), although this would require larger inlet on F-16. General Electric also engaged in improvement effors, using company funding to begin development of F110-GE-129 EFE (Enhanced Fighter Engine) in October 1997; EFE initially to be rated at up to 151.0 kN (33,945 lb st), with further growth potential to 160.0 kN (35,970 lb st); alternatively, improved thrust levels can be sacrificed for up to a 50 per cent increase in TBO and servicing intervals. Production derivative known as F110-GE-132 rated at 144.6 kN (32,500 lb st) installed in F-16 Block 60 aircraft for UAE. Immediately prior standard was 128.9 kN (28,984 lb st) F110-GE-100 or 105.7 kN (23,770 lb st) F100-PW-220 in Blocks 40/42.
Of 1,446 F-16Cs and F-16Ds ordered by USAF, 556 with F100 and 890 with F110. Fixed geometry intake, with boundary layer splitter plate, beneath fuselage. Apart from first few, F110-powered aircraft have intake widened by 30 cm (1 ft 0 in) from 368th F-16C (86-0262); Israeli second-batch F-16D-30s have power plants locally modified by Bet-Shemesh Engines to F110-GE-110A with provision for up to 50 per cent emergency thrust at low level.
Standard fuel contained in wing and five seal-bonded fuselage cells which function as two tanks; 3,986 litres (1,053 US gallons; 876 Imp gallons) in single-seat aircraft; 3,297 litres (871 US gallons; 726 Imp gallons) in two-seat aircraft. Halon inerting system. In-flight refuelling receptacle in top of centre-fuselage, aft of cockpit. Auxiliary fuel can be carried in drop tanks: one 1,136 litre (300 US gallon; 250 Imp gallon) under fuselage; 1,402 litre (370 US gallon; 308 Imp gallon) under each wing. Optional Israel Military Industries 2,271 litre (600 US gallon; 500 Imp gallon) underwing tanks initially adopted only by Israel, but have since been selected by one or two other operators; also adopted for F-16 block 60 version. Latter will have conformal fuel tanks (CFTs) with a combined capacity of 1,703 litres (450 US gallon; 375 Imp gallon). CFTs to be fitted as option on Advanced Block 50/52.

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot only in F-16C, in pressurised and air conditioned cockpit. Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) ACES II zero/zero ejection seat. Bubble canopy made of polycarbonate advanced plastics material. Inside of USAF F-16C/D canopy coated with gold film to dissipate radar energy. In conjunction with radar-absorbing materials in air intake, this reduces frontal radar signature by 40 per cent. Windscreen and forward canopy are an integral unit without a forward bow frame, and are separated from the aft canopy by a simple support structure which serves also as the breakpoint where the forward section pivots upwaed and aft to give access to the cockpit. A redundant safety lock feature prevents canopy loss. Windscreen/canopy design provides 360o all-round view, 195o fore and aft, 40o down over the side, and 15o down over the nose.
To enable the pilot to sustain high g forces, and for pilot comfort, the seat is inclined 30o aft and the heel line is raised. In normal operation the canopy is pivoted upward and aft by electrical power, the pilot is also able to unlatch the canopy manually and open it with a back-up handcrank. Emergency jettison is provided by explosive unlatching devices and two rockets. A limited displacement, force-sensing control stick is provided on the right-hand console, with a suitable armrest, to provide precise control inputs during combat manoeuvres.
The F-16D has two cockpits in tandem, equipped with all controls, displays, instruments, avionics and life support systems required to perform both training and combat missions. The layout of the F-16D second station is similar to the F-16C, and is fully systems-operational. A single-enclosure polycarbonate transparency, made in two pieces and spliced aft of the forward seat with a metal bow frame and lateral support member, provides outstanding view from both cockpits.
Advanced Block 50/52 and Block 60 F-16Ds are configured with weapon system operator station in rear cockpit, plus a large dorsal equipment compartment extending from the rear of the canopy to the leading edge of the fin; compartment houses avionics unique to each operator, plus additional chaff/flare dispensers and an in-flight refuelling receptacle.

SYSTEMS: Regenerative 12KW environmental control system, with digital electronic control, uses engine bleed air for pressurisation and cooling of crew station and avionics compartments. Two separate and independent hydraulic systems supply power for operation of the primary flight control surfaces and the utility functions. System pressure (each) 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), rated at 161 litres (42.5 US gallons; 35.4 Imp gallons)/min. Bootstrap-type reservoirs, rated at 5,79 bar (84 lb/sq in).
Electrical system powered by engine-driven 60 kVA main generator and 10 kVA standby generator (including ground annunciator panel for total electrical system fault reporting), with Hamilton Sundstrand constant speed drive and powered by a Hamilton Sundstrand accessory drive gearbox. 17 Ah battery. Four dedicated, sealed cell batteries provide transient electrical power protection for the fly-by-wire flight control system.
An onboard Hamilton Sundstrand/Solar jet fuel starter is provided for engine self-start capability. Simmonds fuel measuring system. AlliedSignal emergency power unit automatically drives a 5 kVA emergency generator and emergency pump to provide uninterrupted electrical and hydraulic power for control in the event of the engine or primary power systems becoming inoperative.

AVIONICS: Comms: Magnavox AN/ARC-164 UHF transceiver (AN/URC-126 Have Quick IIA in Block 50/52); provision for Magnavox KY-58 secure voice system; Rockwell Collins AN/ARC-186 VHF AM/FM transceiver, ARC-190 HF radio, government-furnished AN/AIC-18/25 intercom and SCI advanced interference blanker, Teledyne Electronics AN/APX-101 IFF transponder with government-furnished IFF control, government-furnished National Security Agency KIT-1A/TSEC cryptographic equipment. F-16C/D Block 52 aircraft of Singapore and South Korea have Litton AN/APX-109+ advanced interrogator/transponder. AN/APX-113 advanced interrogator/transponder installed in Greek Block 50, Taiwanese Block 20 and Turkish Block 50 aircraft and is standard equipment on USAF aircraft procured in FY00 and FY01; is being retrofitted to earlier USAF aircraft as part of CCIP upgrade.
Radar: Northrop Grumman AN/APG-68(V) pulse Doppler range and angle track radar, with mechanically scanned planar array in nose. Provides air-to-air modes for range-while-search, uplook search, velocity search with ranging, air combat, track-while-scan (10 targets), raid cluster resolution, single target track and pulse Doppler track to provide target illumination for AIM-7 missiles, plus air-to-surface modes for ground-mapping, Doppler beam-sharpening, ground moving target, sea target, fixed target track, target freeze after pop-up, beacon, and air-to-ground ranging. Improved AN/APG-68(V)9 radar installed on Advanced Block 50/52 aircraft and Northrop Grumman plans to offer an upgrade kit enabling existing radars to be brought to latest standard, which has synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping and terrain following (TF) modes, plus interleaving of all modes; if internal FLIR targeting system is selected, this could share processor with ABR. Block 60 aircraft for UAE to have Northrop Grumman AN/APG-80 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar.
Flight: Litton LN-39 standard inertial navigation system (ring laser Litton LN-93 or Honeywell H-423 in Block 50/52: LN-93 for Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, South Korea, Pakistan, Portugal and Taiwan, plus Netherlands retrofit and Greek second batch); Rockwell collins AN/ARN-108 ILS, Rockwell Collins AN/ARN-118 Tacan, Rockwell Collins GPS, Honeywell cetral air data computer, Elbit Fort Worth enhanced stores management computer, Gould AN/APN-232 radar altimeter. Fairchild digital terrain system (incorporating BAE Systems Terprom algorithms) to be installed in all new USAF F-16s and USAF Reserve F-16C/Ds. Optional equipment includes Rockwell Collins VIR-130 VOR/ILS.
Instrumentation: Marconi wide-angle holographic electronic HUD with raster video capability (for LANTIRN) and integrated keyboard; data entry/cockpit interface and dedicated fault display by Litton Canada and Elbit Fort Worth; Astronautics cockpit/TV set. Cockpit lighting and external strip lighting compatible with night imaging systems.
Mission: Honeywell multifunction displays. Lockheed Martin LANTIRN package comprises AN/AAQ-13 (navigation) and AN/AAQ-14 (targeting) pods. Turkish aircraft (150+ modified by 1996) to share 60 LANTIRN pod systems; LANTIRN also purchased by Greece, South Korea and Singapore, although Singapore now seeking a replacement system. Sharpshooter pod (down-rated export version of AAQ-14 LANTIRN targeting system) acquired by Bahrain and Israel, but latter obtained indigenous Rafael Litening IR targeting and navigation pod as replacement. Total of 168 Litening II navigation/targeting pods ordered from Rafael and Northrop Grumman to equip Block 25/30/32/40/42 F-16C/Ds of the Air National Guard (136) and Air Force Reserve Command (32); programme called Precision Attack Targeting System, with first AFRC unit (457th FS at Fort Worth, Texas) receiving initial batch of four pods in February 2000; this and three more AFRC squadrons equipped by end of 2000. ANG accepted first pods duing 2000; goal is to allocate eight pods to each 15-aircraft squadron. Litening ER (Extended Range) targeting and navigation pod system also being supplied to ANG, which received first eight (of 16) in fourth quarter of 2002; all delivered by end of year. Under CCIP modification programme, Block 40/42/50/52 aircraft of USAF to adopt new Lockheed Martin Sniper XR advanced FLIR targeting pod system from late 2002 onwards.
Raytheon AN/ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System (HTS) pod introduced on Block 50D/52D aircraft and subsequently retrofitted to entire Block 50/52 fleet. Entered service 1994 and currently deployed by USAF units in USA, Japan and Germany.
Self-defence: Dalmo Victor AN/ALR-69 radar warning system replaced in USAF Block 50/52 by BAE Systems AN/ALR-56M advanced RWR, which also ordered for USAF Block 40/42 retrofit and (first export) Korean Block 52s. Korean aircraft retrofitted with the ITT Avionics/Northrop Grumman AN/ALQ-165 Airborne Self-Protection Jammer (ASPJ) from mid-2000. Provision for Northrop Grumman AN/ALQ-131 or Raytheon AN/ALQ-184 jamming pods. AN/ALQ-131 supplied to Bahrain and Egypt. Israeli Air Force F-16s extensively modified with locally designed and manufactured equipment, as well as optional US equipment to tailor them to the IAF defence role. This includes Elisra SPS 3000 self-protection jamming equipment in enlarged spines of F-16D-30s and Elta EL/L-8240 ECM in third batch of F-16C/Ds, replacing AN/ALQ-178(V)1 Rapport ECM in Israeli F-16As. Chilean aircraft will have ITT Industries Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suite (AIDEWS), incorporating radar warning and RF countermeasures.
BAE Systems AN/ALQ-178(V)3 Rapport III integral self-protection system in Turkish F-16C/Ds will almost certainly be replaced by improved AN/ALQ-178(V)5 system. In March 1993, Greece ordered Raytheon ASPIS (Advanced Self-Protection Integrated Suite) self-defence system, comprising Northrop Grumman AN/ALR-93 RWR, BAE Systems AN/ALE-47 chaff/flare dispensers and Raytheon AN/ALQ-187 I-DIAS jammer; enhanced version known as ASPIS II is being installed on Advanced Block 52 aircraft.
USAF Air National Guard procured Terma PIDS wing weapon pylon with additional chaff/flare dispensers.
BAE Systems AN/ALE-40(V)-4 chaff/flare dispensers (AN/ALE-47 in FY97 Block 50, FMS Block 20/50 since mid-1996 and for retrofit to Block 40/42 and 50/52 of USAF). Raytheon AN/ALE-50(V)2 towed decoy installed in AMRAAM missile pylons and adopted by USAF for all Block 40/42/50/52 aircraft was widely fielded in 1999; USAF to buy total of 961. USAF Air National Guard participating in wing weapon pylon upgrade programme (to be fielded in 2004) that adds MIL-STD-1760 interface to existing PIDS pylons. This programme also includes provisions for future incorporation of a passive missile approach warning system.

ARMAMENT: General Dynamics M61A1 20 mm multibarrel cannon in the port side wing/body fairing, equipped with a General Dynamics ammunition handling system and an enhanced envelope gunsight (part of the head-up display system) and 511 rounds of ammunition. There is a mounting for an air-to-air missile at each wingtip, one underfuselage centreline hardpoint, and six underwing hardpoints for additional stores. For manoeuvring flight at 5.5 g the underfuselage station is stressed for a load of up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), the two inboard underwing stations for 2,041 kg (4,500 lb) each, the two centre underwing stations for 1,587 kg (3,500 lb) each, the two outboard underwing stations for 318 kg (700 lb) each, and the two wingtip stations for 193 kg (425 lb) each. For manoeuvring flight at 9 g the underfuselage station is stressed for a load of up to 544 kg (1,200 lb), the two inboard underwing stations for 1,134 kg (2,500 lb) each, the two centre underwing stations for 907 kg (2,000 lb) each, the two outboard underwing stations for 204 kg (450 lb) each, and the two wingtip stations for 193 kg (425 lb) each. There are mounting provisions on each side of the inlet shoulder for the specific carriage of sensor pods (electro-optical, FLIR and so on); each of these stations is stressed for 408 kg (900 lb) at 5.5 g, and 250 kg (550 lb) at 9 g.
Typical stores loads can include two wingtip-mounted AIM-9L/M/P Sidewinders, with up to four more on the outer underwing stations; Rafael Python 3 on Israeli F-16s from early 1991 and Python 4 from mid-1997; centreline GPU-5/A 30 mm cannon; drop tanks on the inboard underwing and underfuselage stations; HARM targeting system pod along the starboard side of the nacelle; and bombs, air-to-surface missiles or flare pods on the four inner underwing stations. Stores can be launched from Aircraft Hydro-Forming MAU-12C/A bomb ejector racks, Hughes LAU-88 launchers, Orgen triple or multiple ejector racks and Lucas Aerospace Flight Structures Twin Store Carrier (TSC). New BRU-57 bomb racks fitted to Block 50/52 aircraft of USAF from fourth quarter of 2001; installed at mid-span hardpoint, each BRU-57 will be able to carry two smart munitions such as JSOW, JDAM and WCMD.
Weapons launched successfully from F-16s, in addition to AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-120A AMRAAM, include radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow, Rafael Derby and Sky Flash BVR air-to-air missiles, AIM-132 ASRAAM and Magic 2 IR homing air-to-air missiles, AGM-65A/B/D/G Maverick air-to-surface missiles, AGM-88 HARM and AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles, AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles (clearance trials 1993-94) and, in Royal Norwegian Air Force service, the Penguin Mk 3 anti-ship missile. LGBs include GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-22, GBU-24 and GBU-27; F-16 can also deliver GBU-15 glide bomb, which used in conjunction with datalink pod. Israeli IMI STAR-1 anti-radiation weapon has also begun carriage trials on F-16D, although full-scale development is dependent upon receipt of a firm order; IMI runway attack munition (RAM) introduced into IDF/AF service in about 2000. CMS Defense Systems Autonomous Free-flight Dispenser System (AFDS) was tested at Eglin AFB, Florida, during 1992-93 and can be loaded with a variety of submunitions, including cratering bombs, sharped charge bomblets, anti-tank mines, area denial submunitions and general purpose bomblets.
Newest capability, introduced on Block 50/52 aircraft of USAF, incorporates 50T5 software upgrade, allowing F-16 to carry and deliver latest family of precision munitions; release to service occurred in mid-2000. New weapons comprise GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), AGM-154 Joint StandOff Weapon (JSOW) and CBU-103, CBU-104 and CBU-105 wind-corrected munitions dispensers (WCMDs). First operational unit with JSOW and WCMD was 20th FW Shaw AFB, South Carolina. AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) tested on F-16 and expected eventually to be deployed operationally.


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